Irrigation can be defined as human manipulation of the hydrologic cycle to improve crop yield and quality and to decrease economic efforts of drought.

Irrigation is the artificial application of water to plants for their growth and maturity. Irrigation water is supplied to supplement the water available from rainfall and the contribution of soil moisture from ground water. Necessity of irrigation.


Necessity of irrigation is generally because of the following situations:

1. When the Rainfall is less than the water requirement of the plants.
2. When the Rainfall is sufficient, but the spatial distribution of rainfall is not as per
requirement especially in tropical countries.
3. Rainfall is sufficient and the spatial distribution is also good, but the temporal
distribution is not as  per requirement.

Some of the Irrigation advantage:

      • Increase of food production: Better self sustainability and
        food security.
      • Ability of fertigation: application of fertilizers through the irrigation
        direct to the plants.
      • Lessen risk of catastrophic damage caused by drought.
      • Increase income & better cash flow.
      • Lessen manual labor employment decrease width growth.
      • Increase standard of living,Increase value of land.
      • Modify soil or climate environment – leaching.